Cultural and Heritage

Having had an interesting past and being a part of the international spice route many hundreds of years ago, Malaysia has
turned into a mosaic of cultures. Everything from its people to its architecture reflect a colourful heritage and an
amalgamated culture. To understand Malaysian culture, you must first get to know its people.
DISCOVER A LAND OF INTRIGUING DIVERSITY

Malays, Chinese, Indians and many other ethnic groups have lived together in Malaysia for generations. All these cultures
have influenced each other, creating a truly Malaysian culture.
The largest ethnic groups in Malaysia are the Malays, Chinese and Indians. In Sabah and Sarawak, there are a myriad of
indigenous ethnic groups with their own unique culture and heritage.

MALAY
Today, the Malays, Malaysia's largest ethnic group, make up more than 50% of the population. In Malaysia, the term
Malay refers to a person who practices Islam and Malay traditions, speaks the Malay language and whose ancestors are
Malays. Their conversion to Islam from Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism began in the 1400s, largely influenced by the
decision of the royal court of Melaka. The Malays are known for their gentle mannerisms and rich arts heritage.

CHINESE
The second largest ethnic group, the Malaysian Chinese form about 25% of the population. Mostly descendents of
Chinese immigrants during the 19th century, the Chinese are known for their diligence and keen business sense. The three
sub-groups who speak a different dialect of the Chinese language are the Hokkien who live predominantly on the northern
island of Penang; the Cantonese who live predominantly in the capital city Kuala Lumpur; and the Mandarin-speaking
group who live predominantly in the southern state of Johor.

INDIAN
The smallest of three main ethnic groups, the Malaysian Indians form about 10% of the population. Most are descendants
of Tamil-speaking South Indian immigrants who came to the country during the British colonial rule. Lured by the
prospect of breaking out of the Indian caste system, they came to Malaysia to build a better life. Predominantly Hindus,
they brought with them their colourful culture such as ornate temples, spicy cuisine and exquisite sarees.
INDIGENOUS ETHNIC GROUPS

Orang Asli
Orang Asli is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. They are divided into
three main tribal groups: Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay. The Negrito usually live in the north, the Senoi in the middle
and the Proto-Malay in the south. Each group or sub-group has its own language and culture. Some are fishermen, some
farmers and some are semi-nomadic.

SARAWAK
Collectively known as the Dayaks, the Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu are the major ethnic groups in the state of Sarawak.
Dayak, which means upstream or inland, is used as a blanket term by the Islamic coastal population for over 200 tribal
groups. Typically, they live in longhouses, traditional community homes that can house 20 to 100 families.

Iban
The largest of Sarawak's ethnic groups, the Ibans form 30% of the state's population. Sometimes erroneously referred to
as the Sea Dayaks because of their skill with boats, they are actually an upriver tribe from the heart of Kalimantan. In the
past, they were a fearsome warrior race renowned for headhunting and piracy. Traditionally, they worship a triumvirate
of gods under the authority of Singalang Burung, the bird-god of war. Although now mostly Christians, many traditional
customs are still practised.
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